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2011 Febrero | Agua-Info: Información y Conocimiento del Agua y el Ambiente para el Desarrollo

Agua-Info: Información y Conocimiento del Agua y el Ambiente para el Desarrollo

proyecto@aguainfo.net, marco.morales75@gmail.com

Cuidemos los cursos de agua: Para niños de corazón

En este video se encuentran importantes señales que crean conciencia sobre los desechos sólidos y líquidos. Un llamado de atención personal, pero también una semilla de conceptos para que se exija a los actores del agua su RESPONSABILIDAD AMBIENTAL:

Tags: , ,
February 21, 2011 - 5:13 PM Comment (1)

NOTICIA Curso 2011: Bases Económicas para la gestión y valoración de servicios ambientales

En este nuevo año cargado de nuevas expectativas, siempre es importante considerar la relevancia de formarse en temas de interés para la sociedad, el ambiente, el agua. Aquí una información que puede servir para los interesados en la valoración económica de los servicios ambientales hídricos, que está tan en boga por las latitudes latinoamericanas:

 

 

 

FECHA LÍMITE DE INSCRIPCIÓN: 30 de junio de 2011

 

DESARROLLO DEL CURSO: del 11 al 22 de julio de 2011

LUGAR: Sede Central, CATIE, Turrialba, Costa Rica

 Objetivos específicos del curso

  • Estudiar los principales métodos para valorar el ambiente desde una perspectiva económica
  • Definir estrategias para incluir los resultados de la valoración económica del ambiente en los procesos de toma de decisiones a distintos niveles
  • Analizar el rol de las comunidades en la gestión de ecosistemas locales
  • Estudiar una metodología para el diseño, la implementación y la evaluación de esquemas de pago por servicios ambientales (PSA) en distintas escalas.
  • Analizar la aplicación de herramientas aprendidas a casos específicos tales como: la estimación de los beneficios económicos de la protección de zonas de recarga hídrica, el manejo colectivo de recursos naturales, la valoración económica de la erosión del suelo, la estimación de los  beneficios económicos del turismo en áreas protegidas, el manejo de conflictos ambientales y el desarrollo de institucionalidad rural, la acción colectiva local para el abastecimiento de agua potable en áreas rurales, la determinación de costos económicos de programas de reconversión productiva, entre otros. 

 Para mayor detalle, visitar el siguiente website: 

 http://www.catie.ac.cr/BancoMedios/Documentos%20PDF/capacita_2011_bases_econom.pdf

 

February 15, 2011 - 11:07 AM Comments (3)

Zona de ribera de ríos: conceptos (01)

El marco conceptual de la zona de ribera, debe ser trabajado desde su perspectiva geográfica y la lógica de los sistemas, debido a los múltiples términos y enfoque de disciplinas relacionados que refiere la literatura científica: desde el análisis del ecólogo o el geógrafo que enfocan la zona como un todo dinámico en donde interactúan muchos procesos (Bayley, 1995; Glenz et al., 2003; Lowrance et al., 1998), el estudio que hace el ingeniero hidráulico de la resistencia al flujo por la vegetación (Järvelä, 2004; Kouwen, 2003), el estudio de los procesos hidrológicos presentes (Inamdar et al., 1999) o el enfoque para la restauración de la zona (Brookes y Shields, 2001; Deng y Singh, 2002; FISRWG, 1998; Stromberg, 2001).

De acuerdo con Wenger (1999) existe una confusión especial respecto al término inglés “riparian” (ribereño), y aún parece que no existe una definición universal aceptada. Las distintas perspectivas de investigación realizada en esta zona han creado un arreglo diverso y algunas veces confuso en cuanto a definiciones basadas en hidrología, topografía, edafología y vegetación (Gregory et al., 1991). La escuela de los ecólogos y los geomorfólogos fluviales no ha llevado a un marco conceptual unificado (Malanson, 1993). Por tanto, es importante presentar algunas definiciones y conceptos relacionados con la zona de ribera, para explicar el campo de acción de la presente investigación en cuanto a la etimología empleada y teoría asociada.

De acuerdo con Naiman et al. (2000) la etimología que da origen al término “ribereño”, corresponde al latín Riparius, “perteneciente a la ribera u orilla del río”, referido a comunidades bióticas que viven en bordes de ríos, arroyos, estanques, lagos y algunos humedales. Esto da cabida a estudiar zonas ribereñas tanto de sistemas lóticos como lénticos (Lewis et al., 2003). Naiman et al (2005) proponen el uso del término inglés “riparian” como un adjetivo, y el término “riparia” como un sustantivo en plural o singular, para referirse a las asociaciones bióticas de las zonas de transición acuática terrestre vinculadas a las aguas lóticas, es decir, las que fluyen.

La Zona de Ribera o Ribereña (del inglés “riparian area” y “riparian zone”) es un área muy próxima a un arroyo o río, cuyo ambiente es distintivamente influenciado por dicha proximidad (Bren, 1993; Lowrance et al., 1998). Entendida desde una sección transversal ideal del cauce, la zona de ribera se define como el área entre el nivel de flujo bajo del curso de agua y el punto más alto de transición entre el cauce y la llanura de inundación (Lovett y Huggan, 1998). Malanson (1993) indica que la zona de ribera es tanto un ecotono entre las zonas terrestre y acuática, como corredores a través de regiones.

Según Naiman et al (2005) las zonas de ribera son sistemas multidimensionales que se forman de acuerdo con los siguientes principios básicos: a) los gradientes de saturación hídrica determinados por la topografía, la geología y la hidrodinámica; b) los procesos biofísicos determinados por los gradientes dinámicos de energía y saturación hídrica; c) sus componentes superficiales y subsuperficiales que controlan los flujos de materia y energía; d) sus comunidades bióticas estructuradas u ordenadas en espacio y tiempo a lo largo de gradientes en tres dimensiones -longitudinal, lateral y vertical.

Bren (1993) considerando un estado estacionario, define la zona de ribera como el área adyacente al cauce fluvial con inundaciones periódicas; un enfoque más acorde con la ingeniería hidráulica señala que ésta es el área cubierta por una inundación en un período de retorno particular (Brookes y Shields, 2001).

Figura 1. Vista de la zona de ribera en el Río Pasabién, región semiárida del Valle del Motagua, Guatemala. Foto: M. Morales (2005).

Usar el término llanura de inundación (floodplain) como sinónimo conllevaría a conclusiones erróneas, pues la zona de ribera incluye tanto áreas angostas al lado de los ríos, como extensas llanuras de inundación (Brinson y Verhoeven, 1999; Malanson, 1993). FISRWG (1998) habla de dos tipos de llanura de inundación: hidrológica o tierra adyacente al flujo base del cauce, ubicada por debajo de la elevación de la terraza de la ladera; topográfica o tierra adyacente al cauce incluyendo tanto llanura hidrológica como otras tierras por encima de un nivel definido por un caudal pico definido por un determinado período de retorno.

Con frecuencia hay que recurrir al análisis de la geomorfología de la ribera para delimitar la extensión del ambiente ribereño (García, s.f.). Una definición geomorfológica más precisa es la de Nanson y Croke (1992) que resalta la asociación genética entre los tipos de ríos y las llanuras aluviales que estos construyen.

Diversos autores enfatizan el elevado dinamismo de las zonas de ribera y sugieren no olvidar tan importante particularidad al momento de abordar los estudios (Glenz et al, 2002; Howard, 1992; Miller et al, 2003; Richards et al, 2002). Según Naiman et al (2005), el alto dinamismo de la ribera hace que exista una interacción “casi experimental” entre su organización espacial y sus procesos ecológicos.

Las zonas de ribera son tanto ecotonos entre las zonas terrestre y acuática como corredores entre regiones (Malanson, 1993). En el contexto de ecotonos y pensando el posible grado de protección que ofrece la zona, ha surgido el término “zona ribereña de amortiguamiento” (del inglés “riparian buffer zone” ó simplemente “buffer”), para expresar cómo ésta amortigua los impactos humanos de uso de la tierra sobre el río (Wenger, 1999).

Respecto a la zona de ribera entendida como un área “buffer” existe una larga lista de investigaciones que han dado paso a importantes avances, entre ellos el desarrollo del Modelo de Ribera REMM (Altier et al., 2002; Lowrance et al., 1998). Correll (1999) presenta una bibliografía con índice y anotaciones de 648 referencias de literatura mundiales con énfasis en las funciones de amortiguamiento de la zona de ribera.

La gran mayoría de estudios revisados concuerdan en expresar el carácter dinámico de la zona de ribera y su vegetación, es decir, en el cambio que siempre se produce debido a procesos continuos (Glenz et al, 2002; Howard, 1992; Miller et al, 2003; Nilsson y Berggren, 2000; Richards et al, 2002; Winward, 2000, entre otros). Las zonas de ribera son uno de los sistemas ecológicos más complejos de la biosfera y también entre los más importantes para mantener la vida del paisaje terrestre y sus ríos (Naiman et al., 2000).

REFERENCIAS

  • Bayley, P. 1995. Understanding large river-floodplain ecosystems. BioScience 45(3):154. In: FIRSWG. 1998. Stream Corridor Restoration.
  • Bren, L. 1993. Riparian zone, stream, and floodplain issues: a review. Journal of Hydrology, Vol 150, Issues 2-4, 277-299 p.
  • Brookes, A.; Shields, F (Eds). 2001. River channel restoration: guiding principles for sustainable projects. John Wiley & Sons. 433 p.
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  • FISRWG. 1998. Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices. GPO Item No. 0120-A; SuDocs No. A 57.6/2:EN 3/PT.653.
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  • Gregory, S.V.; Swanson, F.; McKee, A.; Cummins, K. 1991. An ecosystem perspective of riparian zones. BioScience 41, 540–550.
  • Inamdar, S.P.; Sheridan, J.M.; Williams, R.G.; Bosch, D.D.; Lowrance, R.R.; Altier, L.S.; Thomas, D.L. 1999. Riparian ecosystem management model (REMM): I. Testing of the hydrologic component for a coastal plain riparian system. American Society of Agricultural Engineers. Vol 42(6): 1679-1689.
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